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References for ‘Dr Karl’s Little Book of Climate Change Science’

I did my first story on Climate Change in 1981. These references go back to before that and hopefully up to the present day.

If you want to know anything specific about Climate Change all the hard work I’ve done will save you a lot of time.

Chapter 1-3 references are available below. Most of these references are accessible online by copying and pasting the entire reference into a search engine.

References for Chapters 4-8 coming soon!

NOTE: While efforts have been made to trace and acknowledge all sources of information, in some cases these may have been unsuccessful. If you believe your material is not referenced, or if you think there are errors, please send an email to: mistakes@drkarl.com

Chapter 1: How Long Has This Been Going On?

A snapshot of the science – and how it was covered up

Analogy with Tobacco

Adams, K, Melvin, C & Raskind-Hood, C 2008, ‘Sociodemographic, insurance, and risk profiles of maternal smokers post the 1990s: How can we reach them?’, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1121–1129, viewed 11 March 2021, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18629721/.

The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General 2014, viewed 11 March 2021, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24455788/.

Bonnet, G 2021, Wagering everything we’ve got, Skeptophilia.com, viewed 11 March 2021, http://www.skeptophilia.com/2015/12/wagering-everything-weve-got.html.

Belesky, J 2021, What does life insurance cost for a smoker?, Canstar, Canstar, viewed 1 April 2021, https://www.canstar.com.au/life-insurance/smokers-life-insurance-cost/.

‘Life Insurance Break for Non-Smokers Considered’, The Rock Island Argus (Rock Island, Illinois), 17 March 1960, p 26.

‘Insurance Firms Try Plan for Non-Smokers’, The Miami Herald (Miami, Florida) 27 Oct 1963, p 53.

National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (US) Office on Smoking and Health 2014, Fifty Years of Change 1964–2014, Nih.gov, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US), viewed 14 March 2021, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK294310/.

Canberra Times

‘Different Rate for Smokers’, The Canberra Times, Vol. 41. No. 11,504, 10 October 1966, p 10.

Ancient Weather Measurements

Camuffo, D & Bertolin, C 2011, ‘The earliest temperature observations in the world: the Medici Network (1654–1670)’, Climatic Change, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. 335–363, viewed 12 March 2021, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10584-011-0142-5#article-info.

Australian Natural Gas

Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Economy of Australia, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 14 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_Australia.

Malley, N 2020, Australians greatly over value role of oil and gas in economy, Sydney Morning Herald, viewed 14 March 2021, https://todayspaper.smedia.com.au/smh/PrintArticle.aspx?doc=SMH%2F2020%2F10%2F28&entity=ar01601&mode=text.

Toscano, N & Foley, M 2020, Japan’s new net-zero goal threat to gas, coal exports, Sydney Morning Herald, viewed 14 March 2021, https://todayspaper.smedia.com.au/smh/PrintArticle.aspx?doc=SMH%2F2020%2F10%2F28&entity=ar01600&mode=text.

BHP Lobbyists

Evans, N 2020, BHP says support of lobbyists ‘conditional’, The Daily Telegraph, viewed 13 March 2021, https://metros.smedia.com.au/thedailytelegraph?printArticle.aspx?doc=NCTELE%2F2020%2F08%2F15&entity=ar08500&mode=text.

Key, P 2020, BHP tightens climate screws on lobby groups’ Financial Review, viewed 13 March 2021, https://todayspaper.smedia.com.au/afr/PrintArticle.aspx?doc=AFR%2F2020%2F15&entity=ar02402&mode=text.

Toscano, N 2020, BHP reins in fossil fuel lobby groups, Sydney Morning Herald, viewed 13 March 2021, https://todayspaper.smedia.com.au/smh/PrintArticle.aspx?doc=SMH%2F2020%2F08%2F15&entity=ar00805&mode=text.

BP and Carbon Footprint

ABC News 2021, ‘Carbon Footprints’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/greatmomentsinscience/carbon-footprints/12924338.

ABC News 2021, ‘BP’s Carbon Campaign’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.abc.net.au/radionational/programs/greatmomentsinscience/bps-carbon-campaign/13058072.

BP Global – Environment and society – Carbon reduction 2020, Archive.org, viewed 12 March 2021, https://web.archive.org/web/20060212090704/http:/www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle.do?categoryId=9005334&contentId=7009881.

The New York Times 2021, ‘Opinion | Beyond Propaganda (Published 2006)’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2006/08/14/opinion/14kenney.html.

The New York Times 2021, ‘Footprint (Published 2008)’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/17/magazine/17wwln-safire-t.html.

Guardian staff reporter 2015, World’s richest 10% produce half of global carbon emissions, says Oxfam, the Guardian, The Guardian, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/dec/02/worlds-richest-10-produce-half-of-global-carbon-emissions-says-oxfam.

The best way to reduce your carbon footprint is one the government isn’t telling you about 2017, The best way to reduce your carbon footprint is one the government isn’t telling you about, Science | AAAS, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.sciencemag.org/news/2017/07/best-way-reduce-your-carbon-footprint-one-government-isn-t-telling-you-about.

Wynes, S & Nicholas, KA 2017, ‘The climate mitigation gap: education and government recommendations miss the most effective individual actions’, Environmental Research Letters, vol. 12, no. 7, p. 074024, viewed 12 March 2021, https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aa7541.

Ekwurzel, B, Boneham, Dalton, M, Heede, Mera, R, Allen, M & Frumhoff, P 2017, ‘The rise in global atmospheric CO2, surface temperature, and sea level from emissions traced to major carbon producers tracing emissions sourced from industrial carbon producers to specific climate impacts and furthers scientific and policy consideration of their historical responsibilities for climate change’, Climatic Change, vol. 144, pp. 579–590.

Kaufman, M 2019, Since the first Earth Day, the planet’s CO2 levels have gone off the rails, Mashable, viewed 12 March 2021, https://mashable.com/article/earth-day-2019-climate-change-carbon-dioxide/.

Berohn, K 2019, How to shrink your carbon footprint when you travel, Mashable, viewed 12 March 2021, https://mashable.com/article/sustainable-travel/.

Climate Accountability Institute 2020, Climateaccountability.org, viewed 12 March 2021, https://climateaccountability.org/carbonmajors.html.

Taylor, M & Watts, J 2019, Revealed: the 20 firms behind a third of all carbon emissions, the Guardian, The Guardian, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2019/oct/09/revealed-20-firms-third-carbon-emissions.

‘Invisible Oil’ From Deepwater Horizon Spill May Have Reached The Florida Keys 2020, WLRN, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.wlrn.org/news/2020-02-19/invisible-oil-from-deepwater-horizon-spill-may-have-reached-the-florida-keys.

Outdoor Brands Get Serious About the Carbon Footprint of Adventure 2020, Sierra Club, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.sierraclub.org/sierra/outdoor-brands-get-serious-about-carbon-footprint-adventure.

‌Global energy demand to plunge this year as a result of the biggest shock since the Second World War – News – IEA 2020, Global energy demand to plunge this year as a result of the biggest shock since the Second World War – News – IEA, IEA, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.iea.org/news/global-energy-demand-to-plunge-this-year-as-a-result-of-the-biggest-shock-since-the-second-world-war.

‌Kaufman, M 2020, The devious fossil fuel propaganda we all use, Mashable, viewed 12 March 2021, https://mashable.com/feature/carbon-footprint-pr-campaign-sham/.

‌Liu, Z, Ciais, P, Deng, Z, Lei, R, Davis, SJ, Feng, S, Zheng, B, Cui, D, Dou, X, Zhu, B, Guo, R, Ke, P, Sun, T, Lu, C, He, P, Wang, Y, Yue, X, Wang, Y, Lei, Y & Zhou, H 2020, ‘Near-real-time monitoring of global CO2 emissions reveals the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic’, Nature Communications, vol. 11, no. 1, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18922-7.

Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Montreal Protocol, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 12 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montreal_Protocol.

Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Carbon footprint, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 12 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_footprint.

‌Wikipedia Contributors 2021, BP, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 12 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BP.

The New York Times 2021, ‘How to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/guides/year-of-living-better/how-to-reduce-your-carbon-footprint.

Mazengarb, M 2020, ‘I spent more than that, and I’m not BP’: Cannon-Brookes challenges oil major to do more, RenewEconomy, viewed 12 March 2021, https://reneweconomy.com.au/i-spent-more-than-that-and-im-not-bp-cannon-brookes-challenges-oil-major-to-do-more-93019/.

BP Annual Reports

bp global 2020, Annual financial and operating information | Investors | Home, bp global, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/investors/results-and-reporting/annual-f-oi.html.

bp global 2017, Annual reporting archive | Investors | Home, bp global, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/investors/results-and-reporting/annual-report/annual-reporting-archive.html#tab_11.

BP Deepwater Horizon

Bousso, R 2018, BP Deepwater Horizon costs balloon to $65 billion, U.S., viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-bp-deepwaterhorizon-idUSKBN1F50NL.

Budget Spent by Fossil Fuel Companies on Renewables

Bousso, R 2018, Big Oil spent 1 percent on green energy in 2018, U.S., viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.reuters.com/article/us-oil-renewables-idUSKCN1NH004.

The New York Times 2021, ‘BP Reports a Huge Loss and Vows to Increase Renewable Investment’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/08/04/business/energy-environment/bp-renewable-investment.html.

‌McFarlane, S 2020, BP Bets Future on Green Energy, but Investors Remain Wary, WSJ, The Wall Street Journal, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/bp-bets-future-on-green-energy-but-investors-remain-wary-11601402304.

bp global 2020, Renewables | Energy economics | Home, bp global, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/energy-outlook/demand-by-fuel/renewables.html.

Australian Carbon Footprint

Evaluating the significance of Australia’s global fossil fuel carbon footprint 2019, Climateanalytics.org, viewed 12 March 2021, https://climateanalytics.org/publications/2019/evaluating-the-significance-of-australias-global-fossil-fuel-carbon-footprint/.

Plastic Mostly Not Recycled

Parker, L 2018, Science, National Geographic, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/article/plastic-produced-recycling-waste-ocean-trash-debris-environment.

‌Pollution Prevention: Keep America Beautiful – Iron Eyes Cody (1961-1983) | ANA Educational Foundation 2019, ANA Educational Foundation, viewed 12 March 2021, https://aef.com/classroom-resources/social-responsibility/ad-council-campaigns-made-difference/pollution-prevention/.

Benjamic Franta, Climate Change Activist

2021, Twitter, viewed 12 March 2021, https://twitter.com/BenFranta.

‌Benjamin Franta – Stanford Law School – Stanford, California | LinkedIn 2019, Linkedin.com, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.linkedin.com/in/benjaminfranta.

Trillion Trees

Crowther, T 2019, Understanding Carbon Cycle Feedbacks to Predict Climate Change, AAAS – 2019 Annual Meeting, AAAS, viewed 12 March 2021, https://aaas.confex.com/aaas/2019/meetingapp.cgi/Paper/23744.

‌Katarina Zimmer 2019, Researchers Find Flaws in High-Profile Study on Trees and Climate, The Scientist Magazine®, The Scientist Magazine, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.the-scientist.com/news-opinion/researchers-find-flaws-in-high-profile-study-on-trees-and-climate–66587.

‌2021, Nationalacademies.org, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nationalacademies.org/news/2018/10/technologies-that-remove-carbon-dioxide-from-air-and-sequester-it-need-to-play-a-large-role-in-mitigating-climate-change-says-new-report.

‌Negative Emissions Technologies and Reliable Sequestration 2019, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C., viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25259/negative-emissions-technologies-and-reliable-sequestration-a-research-agenda.

The Independent 2019, ‘Massive restoration of world’s forests would cancel out a decade of CO2 emissions, analysis suggests’, 18 February, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.independent.co.uk/climate-change/news/forests-climate-change-co2-greenhouse-gases-trillion-trees-global-warming-a8782071.html.

‌Predicting climate change 2019, EurekAlert!, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2019-02/ez-pcc021119.php.

‌Guest Blogger 2019, Planting 1.2 trillion trees could cancel out a decade of CO2 emissions, scientists find – The Climate Center, The Climate Center, viewed 12 March 2021, https://theclimatecenter.org/planting-1-2-trillion-trees-could-cancel-out-a-decade-of-co2-emissions-scientists-find/.

‌Temple, J 2019, Landowners are earning millions for carbon cuts that may not occur, MIT Technology Review, MIT Technology Review, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.technologyreview.com/2019/04/18/65883/californias-cap-and-trade-program-may-vastly-overestimate-emissions-cuts/.

‌Song, L 2019, An (Even More) Inconvenient Truth: Why Carbon Credits For Forest Preservation May Be Worse Than Nothing, ProPublica, viewed 12 March 2021, https://features.propublica.org/brazil-carbon-offsets/inconvenient-truth-carbon-credits-dont-work-deforestation-redd-acre-cambodia/.

How trees could help to save the climate* 2019, Ethz.ch, viewed 12 March 2021, https://ethz.ch/en/news-and-events/eth-news/news/2019/07/how-trees-could-save-the-climate.html.

‌Bastin, J-F, Finegold, Y, Garcia, C, Mollicone, D, Rezende, M, Routh, D, Zohner, CM & Crowther, TW 2019, ‘The global tree restoration potential’, Science, vol. 365, no. 6448, pp. 76–79, viewed 12 March 2021, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31273120/.

‌Can Planting Trees Solve Climate Change? – Legal Planet 2019, Legal Planet, viewed 12 March 2021, https://legal-planet.org/2019/07/05/can-planting-trees-solve-climate-change/.

‌Chazdon, R & Brancalion, P 2019, ‘Restoring forests as a means to many ends’, Science, vol. 365, no. 6448, pp. 24–25, viewed 12 March 2021, https://science.sciencemag.org/content/365/6448/24.

Veldman, JW, Aleman, JC, Alvarado, ST, Anderson, TM, Archibald, S, Bond, WJ, Boutton, TW, Buchmann, N, Buisson, E, Canadell, JG, Dechoum, M de S, Diaz-Toribio, MH, Durigan, G, Ewel, JJ, Fernandes, GW, Fidelis, A, Fleischman, F, Good, SP, Griffith, DM & Hermann, J-M 2019, ‘Comment on “The global tree restoration potential”‘, Science, vol. 366, no. 6463, p. eaay7976, viewed 12 March 2021, https://science.sciencemag.org/content/366/6463/eaay7976.

‌Friedlingstein, P, Allen, M, Canadell, JG, Peters, GP & Seneviratne, SI 2019, ‘Comment on “The global tree restoration potential”‘, Science, vol. 366, no. 6463, p. eaay8060, viewed 12 March 2021, https://science.sciencemag.org/content/366/6463/eaay8060.abstract.

‌Bastin, J-F, Finegold, Y, Garcia, C, Gellie, N, Lowe, A, Mollicone, D, Rezende, M, Routh, D, Sacande, M, Sparrow, B, Zohner, CM & Crowther, TW 2019, ‘Response to Comments on “The global tree restoration potential”‘, Science, vol. 366, no. 6463, p. eaay8108, viewed 12 March 2021, https://science.sciencemag.org/content/366/6463/eaay8108.

‌Fagan, ME, Reid, JL, Holland, MB, Drew, JG & Zahawi, RA 2020, ‘How feasible are global forest restoration commitments?’, Conservation Letters, vol. 13, no. 3, viewed 12 March 2021, https://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/conl.12700.

CCC: One fifth of UK farmland must be used to tackle climate change | Carbon Brief 2020, Carbon Brief, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.carbonbrief.org/ccc-one-fifth-of-uk-farmland-must-be-used-to-tackle-climate-change.

‌Temple, J 2020, ‘A Trillion Trees’ is a great idea—that could become a dangerous climate distraction, MIT Technology Review, MIT Technology Review, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.technologyreview.com/2020/01/28/276052/tree-planting-is-a-great-idea-that-could-become-a-dangerous-climate-distraction/.

Home | Trillion Trees 2021, Trilliontrees.org, viewed 12 March 2021, https://trilliontrees.org/home.

Budget of Climate Denialists

Goldenberg, S. (2013). Secret funding helped build vast network of climate denial thinktanks. The Guardian. [online] 15 Feb. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/feb/14/funding-climate-change-denial-thinktanks-network [Accessed 6 Dec. 2020].

Goldenberg, S. (2013). Conservative groups spend up to $1bn a year to fight action on climate change. The Guardian. [online] 21 Dec. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/dec/20/conservative-groups-1bn-against-climate-change [Accessed 6 Dec. 2020].

Roston, E. (2016). Trying to Put a Price on Big Oil’s “Climate Obstruction” Efforts. Bloomberg. [online] 7 Apr. Available at: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2016-04-07/trying-to-put-a-price-on-big-oil-s-climate-obstruction-efforts [Accessed 8 Apr. 2016].

Costs of Climate Change

Camuzeaux, J 2020, How we underestimate the costs of climate change, and why it matters now, Environmental Defense Fund, viewed 14 March 2021, https://www.edf.org/blog/2020/07/23/how-we-underestimate-costs-climate-change-and-why-it-matters-now.


2020, Exxon, vs Tesla, NextEra

Root, A 2020, Tesla Stock IPOed 10 Years Ago Today. It’s Been Quite an Investment., Barrons.com, Barrons, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.barrons.com/articles/tesla-10-anniversary-ipo-electric-vehicles-elon-musk-51593437846.

‌Giles Parkinson 2020, World’s biggest wind and solar producer now worth more than ExxonMobil, RenewEconomy, viewed 12 March 2021, https://reneweconomy.com.au/worlds-biggest-wind-and-solar-producer-now-worth-more-than-exxonmobil-26783/.

Benjamin Storrow,E&E News 2020, Exxon’s Internal Plans Reveal Rising CO2 Emissions, Scientific American, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/exxons-internal-plans-reveal-rising-co2-emissions/.

Wayland, M 2020, Tesla’s market cap tops the 9 largest automakers combined – Experts disagree about if that can last, News Break, CNBC, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.newsbreak.com/news/2125873536631/teslas-market-cap-tops-the-9-largest-automakers-combined-experts-disagree-about-if-that-can-last.

The New York Times 2021, ‘”Is Exxon a Survivor?” The Oil Giant Is at a Crossroads.’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2020/12/10/business/energy-environment/exxon-mobil-pandemic-energy-transition.html.

Bob Ward, Royal Society

Women in Royal Society

Holmes, R 2010, The Royal Society’s lost women scientists, the Guardian, The Guardian, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/science/2010/nov/21/royal-society-lost-women-scientists.

Ball, P 2006, ‘When it’s time to speak out’, Nature, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nature.com/news/2006/061002/full/news061002-12.html.

Esso-Atlantic Supertanker

Wikipedia Contributors 2021, List of Esso Atlantic class supertankers, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 12 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Esso_Atlantic_class_supertankers.

Esso Atlantic – (1977-1990) 2021, Aukevisser.nl, viewed 12 March 2021, http://www.aukevisser.nl/inter-2/id303.htm.

Exxon Knew in 1970s

AQ-9 Task Force Meeting (1980) – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 12 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/documents/aq-9-task-force-meeting-1980.

admin 1982, 1982 Memo to Exxon Management about CO2 Greenhouse Effect – Climate Files, Climate Files, viewed 12 March 2021, http://www.climatefiles.com/exxonmobil/1982-memo-to-exxon-management-about-co2-greenhouse-effect/.

Exhibit 1: ‘Range of Global Mean Temperature From 1850 to the Present with the Projected Instantaneous Climatic Response to Increasing CO2 Concentrations’ n.d., viewed 12 March 2021, https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/home/downloads/pdf/press-releases/2018/complaint-exhibit-1-20180109.pdf.

Cusick,ClimateWire, D 2014, Unrestrained Oil and Gas Is the Future, ExxonMobil Argues, Scientific American, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/unrestrained-oil-and-gas-is-the-future-exxonmobil-argues/.

Goldenberg, S 2015, Exxon knew of climate change in 1981, email says – but it funded deniers for 27 more years, the Guardian, The Guardian, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jul/08/exxon-climate-change-1981-climate-denier-funding.

Zhang, S 2015, Exxon’s Own Scientists Confirmed Climate Change – In the 70s, Wired, WIRED, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.wired.com/2015/09/exxons-scientists-confirmed-climate-changein-70s/.

Gayathri Vaidyanathan, ClimateWire 2015, ExxonMobil Denies Lying about Global Warming, Scientific American, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/exxonmobil-denies-lying-about-global-warming/.

The New York Times 2021, ‘More Oil Companies Could Join Exxon Mobil as Focus of Climate Investigations (Published 2015)’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/07/science/more-oil-companies-could-join-exxon-mobil-as-focus-of-climate-investigations.html.

O’Connor, L 2015, Exxon Mobil Screwed Up Its Attack On Columbia For Climate Reports, HuffPost Australia, HuffPost Australia, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.huffingtonpost.com.au/entry/exxon-mobil-columbia-letter_n_565e0623e4b072e9d1c3a82c?ri18n=true.

2016 Award Winners | White House Correspondents’ Association (WHCA) 2016, White House Correspondents’ Association (WHCA), viewed 12 March 2021, https://whca.press/news/awards/past-winners/2016-award-winners/.

‌Carrington, D 2016, ExxonMobil is in its climate change bunker and won’t let reality in, the Guardian, The Guardian, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2016/may/27/exxonmobil-climate-change-bunker.

The New York Times 2021, ‘Exxon Mobil Fights Back at State Inquiries Into Climate Change Research (Published 2016)’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/17/science/exxon-mobil-fights-back-at-state-inquiries-into-climate-change-research.html.

Valdmanis,Reuters, R 2017, Watchdog Group: U.S. Electric Industry Knew of Climate Threat Decades Ago, Scientific American, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/watchdog-group-u-s-electric-industry-knew-of-climate-threat-decades-ago/.

‌Mulvey, K 2017, ExxonMobil attacks new study that exposes its climate deception… again, RenewEconomy, viewed 12 March 2021, https://reneweconomy.com.au/exxonmobil-attacks-new-study-exposes-climate-deceptionagain-35802/.

‌The New York Times 2021, ‘New York Sues Exxon Mobil, Saying It Deceived Shareholders on Climate Change (Published 2018)’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/10/24/climate/exxon-lawsuit-climate-change.html.

Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Exxon, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 12 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exxon.

Exxon’s Fossil Fuel Friends Knew of Climate Change

Exxon’s Oil Industry Peers Knew About Climate Dangers in the 1970s, Too – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 12 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/22122015/exxon-mobil-oil-industry-peers-knew-about-climate-change-dangers-1970s-american-petroleum-institute-api-shell-chevron-texaco/.

Inside Climate News


MacCracken, M & Luther, F 1985, ‘Detecting the climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide’, viewed 18 March 2021, https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/6264945.

Projecting the climatic effects of increasing carbon dioxide / edited by Michael C. MacCracken and Frederick M. Luther. 2020, HathiTrust, viewed 18 March 2021, https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=uiug.30112019111787&view=1up&seq=16.

Exxon’s Own Research Confirmed Fossil Fuels’ Role in Global Warming Decades Ago – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 18 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/16092015/exxons-own-research-confirmed-fossil-fuels-role-in-global-warming/.

Exxon Believed Deep Dive Into Climate Research Would Protect Its Business – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 18 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/17092015/exxon-believed-deep-dive-into-climate-research-would-protect-its-business/.

Exxon Confirmed Global Warming Consensus in 1982 with In-House Climate Models – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 18 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/22092015/exxon-confirmed-global-warming-consensus-in-1982-with-in-house-climate-models/.

Exxon’s Business Ambition Collided with Climate Change Under a Distant Sea – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 18 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/08102015/Exxons-Business-Ambition-Collided-with-Climate-Change-Under-a-Distant-Sea/.

Highlighting the Allure of Synfuels, Exxon Played Down the Climate Risks – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 18 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/08102015/highlighting-allure-synfuels-exxon-played-down-climate-risks/.

‌More Exxon Documents Show How Much It Knew About Climate 35 Years Ago – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 15 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/01122015/documents-exxons-early-co2-position-senior-executives-engage-and-warming-forecast/.

Exxon: The Road Not Taken – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 15 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/book/exxon-the-road-not-taken/.

Exxon Sowed Doubt About Climate Science for Decades by Stressing Uncertainty – Inside Climate News 2015, Inside Climate News, viewed 15 March 2021, https://insideclimatenews.org/news/22102015/Exxon-Sowed-Doubt-about-Climate-Science-for-Decades-by-Stressing-Uncertainty/.

Lee Raymond, Exxon Chair

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Legal Challenge to Exxon

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General Motors & Cover Up of Climate Change

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History of Climate Change

Arrhenius, Svante

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Broecker, Wallace, 1975

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Fisher, N 1975, ‘Chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants and photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton: a reassessment’, Science, vol. 189, no. 4201, pp. 463–464, viewed 15 March 2021, https://science.sciencemag.org/content/189/4201/463.

Callendar, Guy

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CO2 Rate of Increase

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Foote, Eunice Newton

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Plester, J 2019, Weatherwatch: an unsung climate hero comes in from the cold, the Guardian, The Guardian, viewed 15 March 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/science/2019/sep/02/weatherwatch-unsung-climate-hero-eunice-foote-comes-in-from-cold.

Ishak, N 2020, Eunice Foote: The Woman Who Defined Climate Change And Was Ignored, All That’s Interesting, All That’s Interesting, viewed 15 March 2021, https://allthatsinteresting.com/eunice-foote.

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1836 Fourier Paper

Fourier, B. (1824). General Remarks on the Temperature of the Terrestrial Globe and the Planetary Spaces. The American Journal of Science, 32(1), pp.1–20.

Hogbom, Arvid

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Högbom, A.G. (1894). On the probability of global changes in the level of atmospheric CO2. Translated to modern English by Patrick Lockerby (2016).

Keeling, Charles David

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Wikipedia (2020a). Charles David Keeling. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_David_Keeling [Accessed 19 Sep. 2020].

Naming of Greenhouse Effect

Ekholm, N. (1901). On the Variations of the Climate of the Geological and Historical Past and Their Causes. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 27(117), pp.1–61.

Dunbar, B. (2008). NASA – What’s in a Name? Global Warming vs. Climate Change. [online] www.nasa.gov. Available at: https://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/climate_by_any_other_name.html [Accessed 14 Dec. 2020].

Serendipity (2015). Who first coined the term “Greenhouse Effect”? [online] Serendipity. Available at: https://www.easterbrook.ca/steve/2015/08/who-first-coined-the-term-greenhouse-effect/ [Accessed 14 Dec. 2020].

Johnson, B. (2016). A Timeline of Climate Science and Policy. Brad Johnson. Available at: https://climatebrad.medium.com/climate-hearings-af27a3886a43 [Accessed 12 Dec. 2020].

Wikipedia (2019). Nils Gustaf Ekholm. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nils_Gustaf_Ekholm [Accessed 12 Dec. 2020].

Wikipedia (2020). Greenhouse effect. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect#History [Accessed 12 Dec. 2020].

Pouillet, Claude

Dufresne, J.-L. (2008). La Météorologie. Nathan, pp.36–43.

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Predictions of CO2 Levels

Dockrill, P. (2019). One Oil Company Expertly Predicted This Week’s CO2 Milestone Almost 40 Years Ago. Science Alert. [online] 15 May. Available at: https://www.sciencealert.com/exxon-expertly-predicted-this-week-s-nightmare-co2-milestone-almost-40-years-ago [Accessed 22 Jan. 2021].

Lindsey, R. (2020). Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. [online] Climate.gov. Available at: https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide [Accessed 30 Oct. 2020].

NASA (2010). Global Mean CO2 Mixing Ratios (ppm): Observations. [online] Nasa.gov. Available at: https://data.giss.nasa.gov/modelforce/ghgases/Fig1A.ext.txt [Accessed 30 Oct. 2020].

Solar Constant

Wikipedia (2020e). Solar constant. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_constant [Accessed 3 Oct. 2020].

Summary, History of Climate Change

Thompson, C. (2019). How 19th Century Scientists Predicted Global Warming. Jstor Daily. 17 Dec.

Lindsey, R. (2020). Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide. [online] Climate.gov. Available at: https://www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide [Accessed 19 Sep. 2020].

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Wikipedia Contributors (2020). Greenhouse effect. [online] Wikipedia. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse_effect [Accessed 19 Sep. 2020].

Timeline of Climatology

Ekholm, N. (1901). On the Variations of the Climate of the Geological and Historical Past and Their Causes. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 27(117), pp.1–61.

Johnson, B. (2016). A Timeline of Climate Science and Policy. Brad Johnson. Available at: https://climatebrad.medium.com/climate-hearings-af27a3886a43 [Accessed 12 Dec. 2020].

Tyndall, John

Tyndall, J. (1861). The Bakerian Lecture: On the Absorption and Radiation of Heat by Gases and Vapours. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 151(pp. 1-36).

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Thompson, C. (2019). How 19th Century Scientists Predicted Global Warming. Jstor Daily. 17 Dec.

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Smith, A.W. (1920). John Tyndall (1820-1893). The Scientific Monthly, [online] 11(4), pp.331–340. Available at: https://www.jstor.org/stable/6497?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents [Accessed 30 Oct. 2020].

Hockey Stick

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Mann, ME, Bradley, RS & Hughes, MK 1998, issued 2004, ‘Correction: Corrigendum: Global-scale temperature patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries’, Nature, vol. 430, no. 6995, pp. 105–105, viewed 14 March 2021, https://www.nature.com/articles/nature02478.

Mooney, C 2013, The Most Controversial Chart in History, Explained, Mother Jones, viewed 14 March 2021, https://www.motherjones.com/environment/2013/05/most-controversial-hockey-stick-chart-climate-change/.

Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Hockey stick graph, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 14 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hockey_stick_graph.

Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Joe Barton, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 14 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joe_Barton.

Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Jim Inhofe, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 14 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Inhofe.

Medici Meteorological Network

The World’s First Meteorological Network (1654-1670) and Experimental Scientific Society (1657-1667), and the Invention of the Little Florentine Thermometer 2012, Europenowjournal.org, viewed 13 March 2021, https://www.europenowjournal.org/2017/05/02/the-worlds-first-meteorological-network-1654-1670-and-experimental-scientific-society-1657-1667-and-the-invention-of-the-little-florentine-thermometer/.

Morgan Stanley

2020, Energy & Climate Change – a Story in 23 Charts, Morgan Stanley, viewed 14 March 2021.

Munich Re

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2021, Twitter, viewed 29 April 2021, https://twitter.com/RenewCP/status/722219330008514560

Munich Re signs declaration issued by Global Roundtable on Climate Change / Jeworrek: ‘Climate change calls for speedy action and international coordination’ | Munich Re 2021, Munichre.com, viewed 4 May 2021, https://www.munichre.com/en/company/media-relations/media-information-and-corporate-news/media-information/2007/2007-02-20-munich-re-signs-declaration-issued-by-global-roundtable-on-climate-change-jeworrek-climate-change-calls-for-speedy-action-and-international-coordination.html.

Reguly, E 2013, No climate-change deniers to be found in the reinsurance business, The Globe and Mail, The Globe and Mail, viewed 29 April 2021, https://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/rob-magazine/an-industry-that-has-woken-up-to-climate-change-no-deniers-at-global-resinsurance-giant/article15635331/.

The fight against climate change – the story so far | Munich Re Topics Online 2015, munichre.com, viewed 29 April 2021, https://www.munichre.com/topics-online/en/climate-change-and-natural-disasters/climate-change/fight-against-climate-change.html.

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Home – Munich Climate Insurance Initiative 2020, Munich Climate Insurance Initiative, viewed 4 May 2021, https://climate-insurance.org/.

NatCatSERVICE | Munich Re 2021, Munichre.com, viewed 4 May 2021, https://www.munichre.com/en/solutions/for-industry-clients/natcatservice.html.

Natural Disasters Overview | Munich Re Topics Online 2019, munichre.com, viewed 4 May 2021, https://www.munichre.com/topics-online/en/climate-change-and-natural-disasters/natural-disasters.html.

Climate Events – Australia

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Murdoch & Climate Denialism

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Oil Embargo 1973

Toprani, A 2020, ‘The Oil Embargo Begins’, Time, 6 July, p. 23.

Shell Oil, Video 1991

“Climate of Concern – Royal Dutch Shell (1991)” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0VOWi8oVXmo

Jelmer Mommers February 2017, Shell made a film about climate change in 1991 (then neglected to heed its own warning), The Correspondent, viewed 12 March 2021, https://thecorrespondent.com/6285/shell-made-a-film-about-climate-change-in-1991-then-neglected-to-heed-its-own-warning/692663565-875331f6.

Social Media, Twitter Bots

Milman, O 2020, Revealed: quarter of all tweets about climate crisis produced by bots, the Guardian, The Guardian, viewed 1 April 2021, https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2020/feb/21/climate-tweets-twitter-bots-analysis.

Corbin Hiar, E&E News January 2021, Twitter Bots Are a Major Source of Climate Disinformation, Scientific American, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/twitter-bots-are-a-major-source-of-climate-disinformation/.

Stranded Assets

Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Stranded asset, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 14 March 2021, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stranded_asset.

Eaton, C & McFarlane, S 2020, 2020 Was One of the Worst-Ever Years for Oil Write-Downs, WSJ, The Wall Street Journal, viewed 1 April 2021, https://www.wsj.com/articles/2020-was-one-of-the-worst-ever-years-for-oil-write-downs-11609077600.

Kelly, M 2021, ANZ dumps Port of Newcastle, Newcastle Herald, viewed 1 April 2021, https://www.newcastleherald.com.au/story/7118696/anz-dumps-port-of-newcastle/.

Transition, Stranded Assets

O’Malley, N 2021, What’s a ‘just transition’ and can you switch to green energy without sacking coal workers?, The Sydney Morning Herald, The Sydney Morning Herald, viewed 1 April 2021, https://www.smh.com.au/national/what-s-a-just-transition-and-can-you-switch-to-green-energy-without-sacking-coal-workers-20201218-p56oub.html.

Subsidies, Costs of Changing Climate

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Shahien Nasiripour 2016, Why Companies Shouldn’t Hide The Financial Risks Of Climate Change, HuffPost, HuffPost, viewed 1 April 2021, https://www.huffpost.com/entry/companies-urged-to-report-climate-change-risks_n_56fe7911e4b0a06d58057057.

Global Fossil Fuel Subsidies Remain Large: An Update Based on Country-Level Estimates May 2019, IMF, viewed 14 March 2021, https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2019/05/02/Global-Fossil-Fuel-Subsidies-Remain-Large-An-Update-Based-on-Country-Level-Estimates-46509.

Sanderson, BM & O’Neill, BC June 2020, ‘Assessing the costs of historical inaction on climate change’, Scientific Reports, vol. 10, no. 1, viewed 14 March 2021, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-66275-4.

Why Deny Climate Change

The New York Times 2021, ‘Short Answers to Hard Questions About Climate Change’, viewed 12 March 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/11/28/science/what-is-climate-change.html?_r=0.

Woodside Non-Compliance

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Fernyhough, J 2021, Don’t be fooled by Woodside’s tree planting, hydrogen and CCS plans, RenewEconomy, viewed 1 April 2021, https://reneweconomy.com.au/dont-be-fooled-by-woodsides-tree-planting-hydrogen-and-ccs-plans/.

Chapter 2: Shimmyin’ and A-Shakin’

What’s a Greenhouse Gas and how does it trap heat?

Carbon, Origin Of

Cosmos. “New Views of the Origins of Carbon.” Cosmos Magazine, 8 July 2020, cosmosmagazine.com/space/astrophysics/new-views-on-the-origins-of-carbon/. Accessed 13 July 2020.

Marigo, Paola, et al. “Carbon Star Formation as Seen through the Non-Monotonic Initial–Final Mass Relation.” Nature Astronomy, vol. 4, no. 1102–1110 (2020), 6 July 2020, www.nature.com/articles/s41550-020-1132-1. Accessed 9 July 2020.

CO2 Levels Highest in 3.6 Million Years

Imster, Eleanor. “Carbon Dioxide Levels Now Higher than at Any Time in Past 3.6 Million Years.” EarthSky, 14 Apr. 2020, earthsky.org/earth/carbon-dioxide-co2-levels-2020-highest-in-3-million-years/. Accessed 14 Apr. 2020.

Earth Energy Budget

Lindsey, Rebecca. “Climate and Earth’s Energy Budget.” Nasa.gov, NASA Earth Observatory, 14 Jan. 2009, earthobservatory.nasa.gov/features/EnergyBalance/page1.php. Accessed 5 Oct. 2020.

Hertz, Int Electrical Commission

Anon. “How & Why the IEC Was Started | IEC.” Www.iec.ch, 2020, www.iec.ch/history/how-why-iec-was-started. Accessed 15 July 2021.

How Greenhouse Gases Work

JG, Evan. “SkS Analogy 6 – Speakers, Tuning Forks, and Global Warming.” Skeptical Science, 29 May 2017, skepticalscience.com/SkS_Analogy_06_Tuning_forks_CO2_lasers_global_warming.html. Accessed 16 Feb. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Sun.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Feb. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sun. Accessed 16 Feb. 2020.

Anon. “1 the Natural Greenhouse Effect.” A Greener Future, 9 Mar. 2016, agreenerfutureblog.wordpress.com/1-the-natural-greenhouse-effect/.

Anon. “Global Warming Components.” Skeptical Science, 2019, skepticalscience.com/graphics.php?g=12. Accessed 16 Feb. 2020.

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Wikipedia Contributors. “Global Warming.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 11 Feb. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_warming. Accessed 21 Mar. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Greenhouse.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Mar. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greenhouse. Accessed 21 Mar. 2020.

Lindsey, Rebecca. “Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide.” Climate.gov, NOAA, 14 Aug. 2020, www.climate.gov/news-features/understanding-climate/climate-change-atmospheric-carbon-dioxide. Accessed 30 Sept. 2020.

Climate Illuminated

Anon. “Incoming Outgoing Radition.” Www.climateilluminated.com, 2020, www.climateilluminated.com/climate/climate_science/15_incoming_outgoing_radiation.html. Accessed 23 Oct. 2020.

IPPC Documents

Cubasch, Ulrich, et al. “Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis.” Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Keeling Curve

Wikipedia Contributors. “Keeling Curve.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 8 Dec. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keeling_Curve. Accessed 23 Mar. 2020.

Nitrous Oxide

Tian, H, et al., 2020, ‘A comprehensive quantification of global nitrous oxide sources and sinks’, Nature, vol. 586, no. 7828, pp. 248–256, viewed 7 October 2020, https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2780-0.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Nitrous Oxide.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Oct. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrous_oxide. Accessed 11 Oct. 2020.

Nuclear Weapon Equivalent of Global Warming

Brode, Harold L. Thermal Radiation from Nuclear Explosions. The Rand Corporation, Aug. 1963.

Hansen, James. “Why I Must Speak out about Climate Change.” Ted.com, TED Talks, 2012, www.ted.com/talks/james_hansen_why_i_must_speak_out_about_climate_change. Accessed 4 Sept. 2020.

Levitus, S., et al. “World Ocean Heat Content and Thermosteric Sea Level Change (0 – 2000 M), 1955 – 2010.” Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 39, no. L10603, 17 May 2012, 10.1029/2012GL051106.

Gillis, Justin. “What to Make of a Warming Plateau (Published 2013).” The New York Times, 10 June 2013, www.nytimes.com/2013/06/11/science/earth/what-to-make-of-a-climate-change-plateau.html. Accessed 11 June 2013.

Cook, John. “4 Hiroshima Bombs Worth of Heat per Second.” Skeptical Science, 1 July 2013, skepticalscience.com/4-Hiroshima-bombs-worth-of-heat-per-second.html. Accessed 23 Apr. 2016.

Stover, Dawn. “How Many Hiroshimas Does It Take to Describe Climate Change?” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 26 Sept. 2013, thebulletin.org/2013/09/how-many-hiroshimas-does-it-take-to-describe-climate-change/. Accessed 26 Apr. 2014.

Gillis, Justin. “Short Answers to Hard Questions about Climate Change.” The New York Times, 28 Nov. 2015, www.nytimes.com/interactive/2015/11/28/science/what-is-climate-change.html. Accessed 30 Apr. 2017.

Zanna, Laure, et al. “Global Reconstruction of Historical Ocean Heat Storage and Transport.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 116, no. 4, 22 Jan. 2019, pp. 1126–1131, www.pnas.org/content/116/4/1126. Accessed 31 Aug. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “James Prescott Joule.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 3 Dec. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Prescott_Joule. Accessed 21 Jan. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Joule.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 21 Nov. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joule. Accessed 21 Jan. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Tunguska Event.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 7 Oct. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunguska_event. Accessed 2 Sept. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Trinity (Nuclear Test).” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Jan. 2020, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trinity_(nuclear_test). Accessed 31 Aug. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Jan. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki. Accessed 31 Aug. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Impact Event.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 9 Mar. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Impact_event. Accessed 25 Aug. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Energy Density.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Sept. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy_density. Accessed 2 Nov. 2020.

Richard P Tuckett, Emission Curves From Sun, Earth

Tuckett, Richard P. “Fig. 1 Black-Body Emission Curves from the Sun (T ~ 5780 K) and The…” ResearchGate, 2018, www.researchgate.net/figure/Black-body-emission-curves-from-the-sun-T-5780-K-and-the-earth-T-290-K-showing_fig1_325914607. Accessed 23 Oct. 2020.

Tuckett, Richard. “Greenhouse Gases.” Reference Module in Chemistry, Molecular Sciences and Chemical Engineering, 2018, www.researchgate.net/publication/325914607_Greenhouse_Gases, 10.1016/b978-0-12-409547-2.14031-4. Accessed 18 July 2019.

Sperm Whale Oil

Kruszelnicki, Karl S. “NUKES, WHALES & DIFFS.” Www.abc.net.au, 1999, www.abc.net.au/science/k2/trek/4wd/nukes_diffs.htm. Accessed 20 Dec. 2020.

Ramsey, Phil. “Burned Transmission Fluid Becoming More Common.” Www.machinerylubrication.com, www.machinerylubrication.com/Read/392/almost-burned. Accessed 20 Dec. 2020.

Oslund, Karen. “The Frontiers of Environmental History / Umweltgeschichte in Der Erweiterung.” Historical Social Research, vol. 29, no. 3, 2004, pp. 63–81.

Schramm, Mary Jane. “‘Sperm Whales: The Stuff of Legend’ by Mary Jane Schramm.” The Lighthouse Peddler, 2018, www.thelighthousepeddler.com/archive-2018/2019/2/sperm-whales-the-stuff-of-legend-by-mary-jane-schramm. Accessed 20 Dec. 2020.

Waste Heat in Global Warming

Cook, John. “Waste Heat vs Greenhouse Warming.” Skeptical Science, 27 July 2010, skepticalscience.com/Waste-heat-vs-greenhouse-warming.html. Accessed 11 Oct. 2020.

Wikipedia Contributors. “Nitrous Oxide.” Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, 4 Oct. 2019, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrous_oxide. Accessed 11 Oct. 2020.

Chapter 3: Buried Sunshine

Why do we burn carbon, and where did it come from?

The Oil Drum: Europe | What is a Human Being Worth (in Terms of Energy)? 2020, Theoildrum.com, viewed 21 December 2021, theoildrum.com/node/4315.

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How much energy is there in a barrel of oil? | Peak Oil News and Message Boards 2011, Peakoil.com, viewed 21 December 2021, peakoil.com/generalideas/how-much-energy-is-there-in-a-barrel-of-oil.

Wikipedia Contributors 2020, Barrel of oil equivalent, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 21 December 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barrel_of_oil_equivalent.

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Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Barrel (unit), Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 21 December 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barrel_(unit).

Smith, D 2017, ‘The Energy in a Barrel of Oil’ by Lee and Amanda Borden, Dick Smith Fair Go, Dick Smith Fair Go, viewed 21 December 2021, www.dicksmithfairgo.com.au/energy-barrel-oil-lee-amanda-borden/.

Energy Units and Conversions 2021, Uci.edu, viewed 21 December 2021, www.physics.uci.edu/~silverma/units.html.

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Wikipedia Contributors 2021, Carboniferous, Wikipedia, Wikimedia Foundation, viewed 21 December 2021, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carboniferous.

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Chapter 4: 400,000 Atom Bombs Away!

That’s how much extra heat we’re trapping a day – no wonder it’s getting hot!

The references for this chapter are coming soon.

Chapter 5: So Hot it Hurts the Planet

How rising temperatures affect the planet and its environment

The references for this chapter are coming soon.

Chapter 6: Hot and Unhappy Plants and Animals

The effects of Climate Change on nature

The references for this chapter are coming soon.

Chapter 7: Hot and Unhappy People

The effects of Climate Change on us

The references for this chapter are coming soon.

Chapter 8: What’s the Fix?

There’s heaps we can do to repair and reverse Climate Change

The references for this chapter are coming soon.